Pediatric Liver Diseases:

  • Jaundice
  • Acute liver failure
  • Biliary atresia (blockage in the tubes (ducts) that carry a liquid called bile from the liver to the gallbladder)
  • Metabolic disorders eg. Galactosemia
  • Alagille Syndrome
  • Caroli’s disease
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis in children
  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease in children
  • Liver tumour
  • Wilson’s disease
  • Neonatal hepatitis

Adult Liver Diseases:

  • Bile duct cancer
  • Bile duct stones
  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatitis (A, B and C; non-alcoholic steato hepatitis)
  • Viral Hepatitis
  • Liver Disease
  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Other metabolic diseases
  • Alcoholic Liver Disease
  • Jaundice
  • Cancer of the liver
  • Acute liver failure
  • Cyst in the liver
  • Liver cancer
  • Wilson’s disease

Less common causes of abnormal liver enzymes include hemachromatosis (iron overload), Wilson's disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Though not as common as hepatitis C, hepatitis B can cause chronic liver disease with persistently abnormal liver enzymes.

  •  Hemachromatosis is a genetic (inherited) disorder in which there is excessive absorption of dietary iron leading to accumulation of iron in the liver with resultant inflammation and scarring of the liver.
  •  Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder with excessive accumulation of copper in diverse tissues including the liver and the brain. Copper in liver can lead to chronic liver inflammation, while copper in brain can cause psychiatric and motor disturbances.
  • Alpha -1-antitrypsin deficiency  is an inherited disorder in which the lack of a glycoprotein (carbohydrate-protein complex) called alpha-1-antitrypsin lead to chronic lung disease (emphysema) and liver disease.
  • Autoimmune hepatitis results from liver injury brought about by the body's own antibodies and defense systems attacking the liver.
  •  Celiac disease is a disease of the small intestine where a person has an allergy to gluten and develops gas, bloating, diarrhea and in advanced cases malnutrition. Patients' with celiac sprue can also develop mildly abnormal ALT and AST levels.
  •  Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are diseases with chronic inflammation of the intestines (also referred to as inflammatory bowel diseases). In these individuals inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) or bile ducts also can occur, causing abnormal liver tests.

Liver Surgeries

Types of liver transplant - Adult:

  • Cadaveric liver Transplant
  • Living related transplant
  • Split liver transplant
  •  Deceased donor / cadaveric donor whole liver transplant — Surgeons replace a diseased liver with a whole, healthy liver from a recently deceased donor. This is the most common type of liver transplant.
  •  Living donor liver transplant — Surgeons remove the entire diseased liver and replace it with a portion of a living donor's healthy liver. In both donor and recipient, the livers regrow to the right size for their bodies in a matter of weeks.
  •  Split-liver transplant — Surgeons divide the liver from a deceased donor into two sections for transplantation. This can be used to provide new livers to two people.

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