Liver performs various functions. It produces a number of chemicals which pass into the bloodstream and bile. Various liver disorders alter the blood level of these chemicals. Some of these can be measured in a blood sample. Some tests which are commonly done on a blood sample are called 'LFTs' (liver function tests). These tests assess the general state of the liver and biliary system. LFTs are a group of blood tests that can help to show how well a person's liver is working.

  • Serum Albumin
  • Aspartate aminotransferase ( SGOT)
  • Alanine aminotransaminase ( SGPT)
  • Gamma Glutamyl transpeptidase ( GGT)
  • Prothrombin time
  • Blood / Urine Bilirubin
  • Platelet count

Serum Albumin
Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.

Normal Values: 3.4 - 5.4 grams per deciliter (g/dL).
Lower-than-normal levels of serum albumin wrt liver may be a sign of hepatitis, cirrhosis or ascites.

Aspartate aminotransferase (ALP) SGOT is a protein found in all body tissues. Tissues with particularly high amounts of ALP include the liver, bile ducts, and bone.

Normal range is 44 to 147 IU/L (international units per liter). (5 to 40 units per liter of serum)
Levels vary with age and gender. High levels of ALP are normally seen in children undergoing growth spurts and in pregnant women.
Abnormal values indicate biliary obstruction, hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, alcoholism etc.

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) SGPT is an enzyme found in the highest amounts in the liver. Injury to the liver results in release of the substance into the blood.
Normal range can vary according to a number of factors, including age and gender. Increased levels of ALT often mean that liver disease is present. Liver disease is even more likely when levels of other liver blood tests are also increased.
AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is an enzyme found in high amounts in heart muscle and liver and muscle cells. It is also found in lesser amounts in other tissues.

Normal range is 10 to 34 IU/L.
Diseases that affect liver cells increase the levels of AST. However, increased levels of AST alone do not diagnose liver disease. Measuring ALT at the same time can help narrow the cause of the abnormal test results.

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a test to measure the amount of the enzyme GGT in the blood.

Normal range is 0 to 51 international units per liter.
Greater-than-normal levels of GGT may indicate alcoholic abuse, hepatitis, necrosis, liver tumor, scarring of liver etc.

Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot.
Normal range for someone who is not taking a blood thinner medication is 11 - 13.5 seconds.
Abnormal values indicate bile duct obstruction, liver disease etc.

Bilirubin - blood

It is normal to have some bilirubin in the blood. Normal levels are:

  • Direct (also called conjugated) bilirubin: 0 to 0.3 mg/dL
  • Total bilirubin: 0.3 to 1.9 mg/dL

Abnormal values indicate cirrhosis, hepatitis, bile duct stricture, cancer of gall bladder, tumor etc.

Bilirubin - urine

Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine.
Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to biliary tract disease, cirrhosis, gallstones in biliary tract, hepatitis, liver disease, tumour of liver / gall bladder.
Platelet Count:
Low platelet count has many causes, one of which can be advanced liver disease.

Clinical Parameters in Children:


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