- LIVER DISEASES
- ALL ABOUT LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
- ADULT LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
- PEDIATRIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
- INTERNATIONAL PATIENTS
About Liver Care - Global Hospitals India is one of the leading in India for Liver care and Liver Transplant Surgery
The liver is the largest organ of the human body weighs approximately 1500 g, and is located in the upper right corner of the abdomen. The organ is closely associated with the small intestine, processing the nutrient-enriched venous blood that leaves the digestive tract. The liver performs over 500 metabolic functions, resulting in synthesis of products that are released into the blood stream (e.g. glucose derived from glycogenesis, plasma proteins, clotting factors and urea), or that are excreted to the intestinal tract (bile). Also, several products are stored in liver parenchyma (e.g. glycogen, fat and fat soluble vitamins).The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile, which is then delivered to the duodenum to emulsify fats. Emulsification is the breaking up of fat globules into smaller fat droplets, increasing the surface area upon which fat-digesting enzymes (lipases) can operate. Because bile is not involved in breaking any chemical bonds, it is not an enzyme. It is an emulsifier. Bile is also alkaline, serving to help neutralize the HCl in the chyme.
Bile consists of bile salts, bile pigments, phospholipids (including lecithin), cholesterol, and various ions. The primary bile pigment, bilirubin, is an end product of the breakdown of hemoglobin from expended red blood cells. The bile that is lost via the feces consists of bilirubin. This is the body's natural way of getting rid of bilirubin. Bilirubin gives the feces a brown color.
The liver performs numerous metabolic functions. Some of the most important are mentioned below:Bile is produced.
- Blood glucose is regulated. When blood glucose is high, the liver converts glucose to glycogen ( glycogenesis) and stores the glycogen. When blood glucose is low, glycogen is broken down ( glycogenolysis), and glucose is released into the blood.
- Proteins (including plasma proteins) and certain amino acids are synthesized.
- Ammonia (which is toxic) is converted to urea (less toxic) for elimination by the kidneys.
- Bacteria and expended red and white blood cells are broken down. From the red blood cells, iron and globin are recycled, and bilirubin is secreted in the bile.
- Vitamins (A, D, and B12) and minerals (including iron from expended red blood cells) are stored.
- Toxic substances (drugs, poisons) and hormones are broken down.
The liver has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury and to adjust its size to match its host.
A unique feature of the liver is the bile ducts, which transport bile from the liver to the small intestine. The bile ducts provide a way for the body to eliminate waste products and deliver digestive aids to the intestine.
The liver cells produce a yellow-green fluid (bile) that collects in the ducts. Bile contains bile salts and cholesterol, special substances that help with the breakdown and absorption of fats and vitamins in the intestines. Bile salts are the bodyís detergents and play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins such as Vitamin A, D, E and K. Cholesterol is also a necessary aid in fat absorption.
The gallbladder is attached to the liver and stores the bile until it is needed for digestion. During digestion, the gallbladder contracts and pushes bile through the common bile duct into the intestine.